In the mid-1980s an aggressive strain of algae known as Caulerpa was accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean Sea when a seaside aquarium cleaned out its tanks. APHIS. From this stem grow vertical fern-like pinnae, whose blades are flat like those of the yew (Taxus), hence the species name taxifolia. The marine algae, Caulerpa brachypus, is a non-native species, originating from the Pacific Ocean. Cactus Caulerpa (Caulerpa cupressoides), also commonly referred to as Cactus Tree Alga, is a species of marine macroalgae from the Caulerpaceae family. Caulerpa taxifolia killer algae This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Native to the Indian Ocean, Caulerpa Taxifolia has since taken root in both the Mediterranean Sea and portions of the Pacific ocean off the coast of Southern California through accidental introduction via commercial fishing nets and from aquarium hobbyists discarding it into coastal waters. Crowds out native species (Woodfield 2008) [3], Caulerpa supports its large size by having its cytoplasm circulate constantly, supported by a network of microtubules. unlike vascular plants, there are no “roots” on algae; however in, in the Mediterranean, the alga is causing a “major ecological event” (Boudouresque, where it is found in the Mediterranean, other native seaweeds are being more or less totally replaced, the numbers of individuals of Mollusca, Amphipoda and Polychaeta in, caulerpenyne extract inhibits or delays the proliferation of several phytoplanktons of the marine food chain (Lemee. A species in the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, with up to 200 fronds. The non-invasive form of Caulerpa taxifolia is native to the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific and the Red Sea. USDA. Caulerpa taxifolia is known to have crowded out the sea grasses in the Mediterranean that had provided food and shelter for a variety of fish and invertebrates, a nursery for new life, and protection for the coastline. [7] This was followed by Japan in 1986, where it was cultivated in tanks in the tropical waters of Okinawa. The alga has invaded the area from the warmer waters of the Red Sea. Many introductions of invasive Caulerpa to the wild are thought to have occurred via aquarium dumping although there is no proof that this is so. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act. Most are for domestic consumption, but they are also exported to Japan.[9]. A species profile for Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone. [11][12], "Advances in cultivation, wastewater treatment application, bioactive components of, Nutrient Cycling In The Great Barrier Reef Aquarium. The temperature range for the Mediterranean strain is 7°C - 32.5°C, while the maximum salinity is 38 ppt (NIMPIS, 2002). It may also be used in refugiums for a long-term nitrite absorber. The state of California also prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa. Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an alga of the genus Caulerpa native to the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Nat… Scientific Name: Caulerpa taxifolia. What Is It? the marine alga, Caulerpa taxifolia, is native to the tropical oceans and seas of the world, including Australia, Brazil, Ceylon, Indonesia, Philippines, Tanzania and Vietnam in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria it was first observed in the … Caulerpa species are eaten as delicacies in some Pacific countries, 89 and it was the search for the distinctive “peppery principle” of C. racemosa that led the initial investigation into this genus. This species is an unassuming, uncommon alga that can easily be mistaken for C. taxifolia. It was first identified outside its natural range near Monaco in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984. [4], The cytoplasm does not leak out when the cell is cut. NATIVE AND INVASIVE RANGE . Some species of Caulerpa are edible. This behavior was known in 1967. Caulerpa taxifolia is native in tropical waters with populations naturally occurring in the Caribbean, Gulf of Guinea, Red Sea, East African coast, Maldives, Seychelles, northern Indian Ocean, southern China Sea, Japan, Hawai‘i, Fiji, New Caledonia and tropical/sub-tropical Australia. Site Feedback, in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria, it was first observed in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984. There is evidence that the native alga Caulerpa filiformis is spreading along intertidal rocky shores in New South Wales, Australia, seemingly at the expense of native Sargassum spp. Caulerpa taxifolia, a pantropical species native to the Caribbean and congener to C. brachypus, is the now infamous "killer algae". [6], Only C. lentillifera is cultivated in aquaculture. Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae). Infestations of the aquarium strain have been found in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia, and California. The alga has a stem (rhizome just above the seafloor. Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an alga of the genus Caulerpa native to the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Referring to its thalli's crawling habit, the name means 'stem (that) creeps', from the Ancient Greek kaulos (καυλός, ‘stalk’) and herpo (ἕρπω, ‘to creep’). It is a bright green, marine alga popular as a saltwater aquarium specimen. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. The Hawaiian version is small and delicate and grows in small patches in quiet, warm waters on reef flats. [10], Caulerpa is common in the aquarium hobby as a nitrate absorber because of its rapid growth under relatively adverse conditions. A cold water strain of this attractive tropical alga, possibly developed from plants that initially originated from … Both are traditionally harvested in the wild and sold in local markets in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and East Asia. In U.S. waters, the Mediterranean strain of Caulerpa taxifolia is listed as a federal noxious weed, under the Plant Protection Act. Caulerpa, however, can also be used as a substitute for vascular plants when creating a lagoon-type setting. This species can be invasive from time to time. It was introduced to the environment by net fouling, ballast water and released from aquariums. [8] Commercial cultivation has since spread to other countries, including Vietnam, Taiwan, and China (in Fujian and Hainan). Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, 1988, Vol. UF Privacy Policy Temperate water herbivores have no natural immunity to these toxins, allowing Caulerpa to grow unchecked if introduced to temperate waters. DNA tests are necessary to distinguish the invasive Mediterranean strain from native C. taxifolia . Native Introduced Native and Introduced Little information has been recorded on Caulerpa sertularioides. Caulerpa taxifolia is native to warm tropical waters around the world, such as: the West Indies and Africa (Atlantic Ocean) the coastal waters of Sri Lanka, Pakistan and western Australia (Indian Ocean) the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, New Caledonia, and northern Australia (Pacific Ocean) In Australia, C. taxifolia is native to the tropical and subtropical north coast, but in 2000-2002, introduced populations of C.taxifolia were found in near Sydney in New South Wales and near Adelaide in South Australia, presumably due to domestic translocations. Includes species listed as a Federal Noxious Weed under the Plant Protection Act, which makes it illegal in the U.S. to import or transport between States without a permit. The algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it. C. taxifolia has devastated thousands of hectares of habitat in the Mediterranean and its economic impacts are measured in billions of dollars. The Aquatic Nuisance Species Taskforce has also created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa. Another species, Caulerpa taxifolia, has become an invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia and southern California (where it has since been eradicated). Fast growing and very hardy in the marine aquarium. Due to the Mediterranean strains high growth rate, toxicity to predators and longevity, C. taxifolia has proven to be very successful in many non-native habitats. Killer Algae is native to the Indian Ocean range but is now established in the Mediterranean Sea and was found in Southern California in 2000. The Mediterranean strain was reported in 2000 to be found in California waters (green in map above). However, it was reported in 2000 that the Mediterranean Sea strain of the alga was discovered in California waters, where it is not native, and where it may spread as it has in the Mediterranean. They are eaten raw in salads and have a characteristic "sea" flavor and a crunchy texture. Described for the first time in Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873 is a green marine alga (Chlorophyta) belonging to the family of the Caulerpaceae, like the well known Caulerpa prolifera of the Mediterranean or the infamous Caulerpa taxifolia native to Australia, Central America and the African coasts. Called “killer algae,” it is known as the algae that took over the Mediterranean Sea. It is capable of extremely rapid growth, up to one half inch … Non-native Species Information: Caulerpa. Regeneration is directional, with rhizoids at the bottom and fronds at the top.[5]. It features palm shaped fronds that extend upward in clusters to form a symmetrical tip. Caulerpa taxifolia. Play this game to review Biology. Aquarium caulerpa (Caulerpa taxifolia) In Australia. The algae, therefore, has no known natural enemies in Florida waters, and can spread rapidly, overgrowing upon native bottom dwelling organisms and damaging the ecosystem. These include the red pigment alkaloid caulerpin and its derivative caulerchlorin and the amine mixture caulerpicin. Most Caulerpa species evolved in tropical waters, where herbivores have immunity to toxic compounds (mainly caulerpicin) within the alga. Caulerpa taxifolia is a native alga of Hawaii, where it has not demonstrated any invasive tendencies. They are unusual because they consist of only one cell with many nuclei, making them among the biggest single cells in the world. 2, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caulerpa&oldid=990355447, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 02:40. Caulerpa quickly spread over the sea floor, crowding out many species including sponges, corals, sea fans, and lobsters. The two most commonly eaten are Caulerpa lentillifera and Caulerpa racemosa, both called "sea grapes" in English. For this reason, some aquarium hobbyists have begun using Chaetomorpha or an algae scrubber instead. Native populations in tropical waters are found on rocky reefs and seagrass meadows in sheltered or moderately wave-exposed areas in both polluted and pristine waters (NIMPIS, 2002). Cactus Caulerpa native habitat, distribution, behavior & aquarium compatibility. Caulerpa is native to tropical regions throughout the world, including tropical and subtropical parts of Australia, with its southern natural limit at Moreton Bay in Queensland. Caulerpa is native to the Caribbean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Caulerpa taxifoliais native to northern Australia, the Indian Ocean, the east African coast, the western Pa- cific, Indonesia and the southwest Pacific, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Caulerpa paspaloides: A highly variable species of Caulerpa that is native to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. is native to northern Australia, the Indian Ocean, the east African coast, the western Pa­ ciic, Indonesia and the southwest Paciic, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. In the mid-1980s an aggressive strain of algae known as Caulerpa was accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean Sea when a seaside aquarium cleaned out its tanks. 3) Eradicate Caulerpa populations, in waters to which they are not native, where feasible. Flattened fronds. Google Privacy Policy | © 2020 University of Florida / IFAS / Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants It is protected from sea urchins, fish and other herbivores by its toxicity. Affects: Native habitats and fish, tangles nets and anchors. Pinnules curve upwards and grow directly opposite each other. Movement: Vessels, fisheries and aquaculture, ornamental (aquarium) trade. Another species, Caulerpa taxifolia, has become an invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea, Australia and southern California (where it has since been eradicated). The state of California also prohibits possession of nine different species of Caulerpa. It is widely used ornamentally in aquariums, because it is considered attractive and neat in arrangement, and is easy to establish and care for.The alga has a stem (rhizome) which spreads horizontally just above the seafloor. In the Mediterranean it has spread into thousands of hectares where it fills the water column with hundreds of tons of plant biomass per hectare. Its cultivation began in the 1950s in Cebu, Philippines, after accidental introduction of C. lentillifera to fish ponds. However, this common green alga has gained wide notoriety from its large outbreaks after accidental introduction in the Mediterranean and California. A clone of the species was cultured for display at the Stuttgart Aquarium in Germany and provided to aquariums in France and Monaco. Caulerpa is a sea weed of warm waters, the Caribbean, the Pacific of Hawaii, the India Ocean, and introduced into parts of the Mediterranean. Caulerpa patches, frond density ranges from 5,100/m2 to 14,000/m2, with the highest densities occurring in the summer. C. racemosa has recently been found in waters around Crete, where it is thought to have contributed to a significant reduction in fisheries. C. cylindracea, which is native to Australia, has also become an invasive species in the Mediterranean. It may have arrived either in ship bilges, or discarded by aquarium hobbyists. Plant Protection and Quarantine. This page uses Google Analytics The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Caulerpa . Growth: The aquarium strain of Caulerpa taxifolia has the ability to form a dense carpet on any surface including rock,sand,and mud. Caulerpa taxifolia is a marine, green alga, a certain strain of which is invading sectors of the western coasts of the Mediterranean Sea where it grows much more robustly than it does in its native range. The Aquatic Nuisance Species Taskforce has also created a National Management Plan for the Genus Caulerpa. 4) Provide long-term adaptive management and mitigate impacts of populations of Caulerpa species in U.S. waters where they are not native and where eradication is not feasible. It is widely used ornamentally in aquariums, because it is considered attractive and neat in arrangement, and is easy to establish and care for. It is thought that Caulerpa species have such invasive properties in these regions due to their capability to thrive in temperate waters, along with their freedom from natural predators. Killer Algae can form new fronds and stems from mere segments of itself. 1. the marine alga, Caulerpa taxifolia, is native to the tropical oceans and seas of the world, including Australia, Brazil, Ceylon, Indonesia, Philippines, Tanzania and Vietnam 2. in the early 1980s it was used for decoration in aquaria 3. it was first observed in the Mediterranean Sea in 1984 not native. Distribution: Caulerpa taxifolia is native to tropical waters, including the Caribbean, Indo-Pacific, and Red Sea. Like invasive macrophytes, some native macrophytes are spreading rapidly with consequences for community structure. Features: Light green. It can tolerate colder water so you can find elsewhere but it’s native to warm waters. In areas of massive invasion, this algas spread is associated primarily with human factors. Caulerpa veravalensis is similar to C. taxifolia but differs in the shape of the stolon. The algae contains a toxin that prevents native herbivores from consuming it. Great Britain Non-Native Species Secretariat. Noxious Weeds Program. Habitat: Estuaries, coastal lagoons, bays. The genus produces a number of secondary metabolites thought to be related to its toxicity and peppery taste. Caulerpa taxifolia is native to the Caribbean and other tropical seas where it grows in small patches and does not present problems. This green alga is a native of Hawai‘i, and is quite common throughout the world. Alga of Hawaii, where it grows in small patches in quiet, warm waters on reef flats by its! Each other traditionally harvested in the Mediterranean and California and anchors this was followed Japan! In billions of dollars nets and anchors, 1988, Vol alga popular as a federal noxious weed under., and Red Sea habitats and fish, tangles nets and anchors Caulerpa patches frond! Human factors characteristic `` Sea '' flavor and a crunchy texture the Plants Database includes the 1! 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