The idea of Nation is seen as the “greatest anesthetic”. 3) Synecretism and Tagore’s Nationalism. Such wholesale and universal acts of fearful responsibility man can never perform, with such a degree of systematic unawareness, where he is an individual human being. Generally, nationalism is inextricably linked with patriotism. The personal experience which I have had of their literary men has roused my admiration not merely for their power of thought or expression but for their chivalrous humanity. It is extremely bold of me to say so, but I assert that man's world is amoral world, not because we blindly agree to believe it, but because it is so in truth which would be dangerous for us to ignore. He reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In short, unity of a nation ensures the unity of humankind. They are clean in their minds, frank in their manners, true in their friendships; in their behaviour they are honest and reliable. And when in India we shall be able to assimilate in our life what is permanent in Western civilization we shall be in the position to bring about a reconciliation of these two great worlds. The grammarian walks straight through all poetry and goes to the root of words without obstruction. The truth is that the spirit of conflict and conquest is at the origin and in the centre of the Western nationalism; its basis is not social cooperation. Tagore observes how the development of Japan as a nation produced a sense of bitterness amongst the British since they were unwilling to share the sources of their power to others. It is just possible that you have lost through habit consciousness that the living bonds of society are breaking up, and giving place to merely mechanical organization. India, as Tagore describes, was a no nation with an “ambition to know the world as a soul”. This brotherhood is not borne of any religious achievement or such but of shared interests in the pursuits of power. This true realization pertains to the spiritual aspect as the history of India, of social life and attainment of spiritual ideas. When the humanity of India was not under the government of the Organization, the elasticity of change was great enough to encourage men of power and spirit to feel that they had their destinies in their own hands. And yet men are not by nature cruel to such a degree. But we delude ourselves into thinking that humanity in the modern days is more to the front than ever before. This is a condition not only prevailing in India, but among all nations. "Nationalism in the West" is one of a series of lectures delivered throughout the United States during the winter of 1916-17. Change ). The Nation, with all its paraphernalia of power and prosperity, its flags and pious hymns, its blasphemous prayers in the churches, and the literary mock thunders of its patriotic bragging, cannot hide the fact that the Nation is the greatest evil for the Nation, that all its precautions are against it, and any new birth of its fellow in the world is always followed in its mind by the dread of a new peril. What they fail to see is that the man is an aspect of the moral world and cannot be divided into compartments of morality. For Tagore Nationalism is "organized selfishness" and the proof of it is the insane massacre known as World War I Following that tragedy Tagore wrote that "The time has come when, for the sake of the whole outraged world, Europe should fully know in her own person the terrible absurdity of the thing called the Nation." That Japanese people have some qualities which we lack we may admit, but that our intellect is naturally unproductive compared to theirs we cannot accept even from them whom it is dangerous for us to contradict. Tagore uses two metaphors to articulate this viewpoint. He can do things in a shorter time and occupies a larger space with more thoroughness of advantage. We, on our side, are individuals with living sensibilities. Tagore described theirs as a mechanical humanity with tentacles of machinery engraving itself deeply onto others. Thus, man with his mental and material power far outgrowing his moral strength, is like an exaggerated giraffe whose head has suddenly shot up miles away from the rest of him, making normal communication difficult to establish. They have organized their power till they are not only reasonably free from the tyranny of Nature and human neighbours, but have a surplus of it left in their hands to employ against others. Politics in the West have dominated Western ideals, and we in India are trying to imitate you. I have not come here, however, to discuss the question as it affects my own country, but as it affects the future of all humanity. Because success is the object and justification of a machine, while goodness only is the end and purpose of man. But when with the help of science and the perfecting of organization this power begins to grow and brings in harvests of wealth, then it crosses its boundaries with amazing rapidity. Her pitiful attempt to shake off her traditions of humanity, her social ideals, and spend her last exhausted resources to drill herself into modern efficiency, is thwarted at every step by the Nation. According to Tagore, if in India people acquired these kinds of fanaticisms, the consequences could be devastating. It was only the other day that Persia woke up from her age-long sleep at the call of the West to be instantly trampled into stillness by the Nation. Tagore writes that a nation is loyal to a nation when its interest meets or do not conflict. To India has been given her problem from the beginning of history - it is the race problem. Its iron grip we have felt at the root of our life, and for the sake of humanity we must stand up and give warning to all, that this nationalism is a cruel epidemic of evil that is sweeping over the human world of the present age, eating into its moral vitality. The governors need not know our language, need not come into personal touch with us except as officials; they can aid or hinder our aspirations from a disdainful distance, they can lead us on a certain path of policy and then pull us back again with the manipulation of office red tape; the newspapers of England, in whose columns London street accidents are recorded with some decency of pathos, need but take the scantiest notice of calamities happening in India over areas of land sometimes larger than the British Isles. This description applies to the governing of India, which is as little touched by the human hand as possible. But you find it difficult to believe her, - for the wisdom of the Nation is not in its faith in humanity but in its complete distrust. If you want me to take to butchering human beings, you must break up that wholeness of my humanity through some discipline which makes my will dead, my thoughts numb, my movements automatic, and then from the dissolution of the complex personal man will come out that abstraction, that destructive force, which has no relation to human truth, and therefore can be easily brutal or mechanical. messianic poet and Asia’s first Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), launched a fierce diatribe on nationalism. “West is dangerous for Japan is not the imitation of the outer features of the West, but the acceptance of the motive force of Western nationalism as her own”. Nationalism in the West. With the growth of power the cult of the self-worship of the Nation grows in ascendency; and the individual willingly allows the nation to take donkey rides upon his back; and there happens the anomaly which must have its disastrous effects, that the individual worships with all sacrifices a god which is morally much inferior to himself. But the same vices which seem so natural and innocuous in its own life make it surprised and angry at their unpleasantness when seen in other nations. Nationalism by Tagore, Rabindranath, 1861-1941; Book Club of California; Norwood Press; Berwick & Smith; J.S. Mere administration is unproductive, it is not creative, not being a living thing. Now she must know the truth nearer home. Knowledge and efficiency are powerful in their outward effect, but they are the servants of man, not the man himself. But what happens in a Nation is that man’s satisfaction of needs gives him more space and time and in the progress of power, man detaches from humanity, overtaking the slow timers and so, the moral man gets behind as it has to deal with the whole of humanity and not only the impersonal part. The nature of the Nation is such that it gives rise to mistrust and trepidation amongst its people towards any radical thinker or any other such nation. Therefore he can easily outstrip those who live in a world of a slower time and of space less fully occupied. Ethnologically different races had and were in close contact to each other. ramblingsofacollegekidblog Uncategorized October 25, 2017 October 25, 2017 6 Minutes. When this engine of organization begins to attain a vast size, and those who are mechanics are made into parts of the machine, then the personal man is eliminated to a phantom, everything becomes a revolution of policy carried out by the human parts of the machine, requiring no twinge of pity or moral responsibility. She has made grave errors in setting up the boundary walls too rigidly between races, in perpetuating the results of inferiority in her classifications; often she has crippled her children's minds and narrowed their lives in order to fit them into her social forms; but for centuries new experiments have been made and adjustments carried out. The teachings of the West ran counter to ours. Then came the age of intellect, of science. Before the Nation came to rule over us we had other governments which were foreign, and these, like all governments, had some element of the machine in them. The West in the voice of her thundering cannon had said at the door of Japan, Let there be a Nation - and there was a Nation. ... Tagore deemed nationalism a … Its one wish is to trade on the feebleness of the rest of the world, like some insects that are bred in the paralyzed flesh of victims kept just enough alive to make them toothsome and nutritious. It is like the pack of predatory creatures that must have its victims. Suddenly, all its mechanism going mad, it has begun the dance of the furies, shattering its own limbs, scattering them into the dust. It is tightening its financial ropes round her, trying to drag her up on the shore and cut her into pieces, and then go and offer public thanksgiving to God for supporting the one existing evil and shattering the possibility of a new one. In other words, it is an expression of 'the organised self- interest of a people where it is least human and least spiritual' (all these views have been taken from Rabindranath Tagore's Nationalism (1916) which is compilation of three of his lectures 'Nationalism in Japan,' 'Nationalism in West' and 'Nationalism … In this reign of the nation, the governed are pursued by suspicions; and these are the suspicions of a tremendous mass of organized brain and muscle. This abstract being, the Nation, is ruling India. Some may even be driven by hand, thus leaving a margin of comfortable looseness in their tension, but in spirit and in method their differences are small. Rabindranath Tagore provides a unique perspective in our understanding of the idea of nationalism which stems from a belief in Asian values of spiritual unity and ethical social setup. While the small feeding bottle of our education is nearly dry, and sanitation sucks its own thumb in despair, the military organization, the magisterial offices, the police, the Criminal Investigation Department, the secret spy system, attain to an abnormal girth in their waists, occupying every inch of our country. Their family house at Jorasanko was a hive of cultural and intellectual activity and Tagore started writing at an early age. But now, this side has seeped out with the help of advancement of science and perfecting of organizations. For this dust is fertile of life, and of beauty and worship. Of this present disharmony in man's nature the West seems to have been blissfully unconscious. Through all the fights and intrigues and deceptions of her earlier history India had remained aloof. And we cannot but acknowledge this paradox, that while the spirit of the West marches under its banner of freedom, the Nation of the West forges its iron chains of organization which are the most relentless and unbreakable that have ever been manufactured in the whole history of man. Punishments are meted out, leaving a trail of miseries across a large bleeding tract of the human heart; but these punishments are dealt by a mere abstract force, in which a whole population of a distant country has lost its human personality. having anything to do with nationalism again, except to launch a systematic indictment to ‘‘destroy the bondage of nationalism’’. It is a spontaneous self-expression of man as a social being. A nation, in the sense of the political and economic union of a people, is that aspect which a whole population assumes when organized for a mechanical purpose. The spirit of the West and the Nation differ. If his nature were not as complex as it is, if it were as simple as that of a pack of hungry wolves, then, by this time, those hordes of marauders would have overrun the whole earth. Therefore what I say about the Nation has more to do with the history of Man than specially with that of India. This, aided by the wonderful progress in science, is assuming gigantic proportion and power, causing the upset of man's moral balance, obscuring his human side under the shadow of soul-less organization. Her mission has been like that of a hostess to provide proper accommodation to her numerous guests whose habits and requirements are different from one another. It is owing to this that war has been declared between man and woman, because the natural thread is snapping which holds them together in harmony; because man is driven to professionalism, producing wealth for himself and others, continually turning the wheel of power for his own sake or for the sake of the universal officialdom, leaving woman alone to wither and to die or to fight her own battle unaided. And India has been trying to accomplish her task through social regulation of differences, on the one hand, and the spiritual recognition of unity, on the other. As a result, the suspicion of man for man stings all the limbs of this civilization like the hairs of the nettle. Cushing & Co. ... Contributor University of California Libraries Language English. But in the Age of Intellect, the age of science, there was a sense of detachment while the reality is a harmony which provides equilibrium. Those who have any faith in Man cannot but fervently hope that the tyranny of the Nation will not be restored to all its former teeth and claws, to its far-reaching iron arms and its immense inner cavity, all stomach and no heart; that man will have his new birth, in the freedom of his individuality, from the enveloping vagueness of abstraction. In some parts of India it has been enjoined as an act of great piety for a widow to go without food and water on a particular day every fortnight. Of all things in Western civilization, those which this Western Nation has given us in a most generous measure are law and order. Because these ideas are the creations of our intellect, because they are logical classifications, therefore they can so easily hide in their mist the personal man. The Nation of the West drains us of opportunities and reduces education to a minimum, using it as a tool to regulate the people. Tagore’s lectures show the ties between nationalism, modernity and science. This narrowness of freedom is an evil which is more radical not because of its quantity but because of its nature. Nationalism for Tagore was an evil that slowly gnawed away at the vitals of human civilization. I know what your advice will be. But the apotheosis off selfishness can never make its interminable breed of hatred and greed, fear and hypocrisy, suspicion and tyranny, an end in themselves. Societal bonds give way to mechanical relations as the harmony between man and woman is disrupted. The role of science here is important as it helps strengthen power but not humanity. In his book, Nationalism, Rabindranath Tagore says that nationalism is an invention of the west. There are other peoples in the world who have obstacles in their physical surroundings to overcome, or the menace of their powerful neighbours. For they in no way represent the true history of our people. The nature of the man under the grip of nation and nationalism, Tagore describes as commercial rather than a moral. Europe owes all her greatness in humanity to that period of discipline, - the discipline of the man in his human integrity. No, for the sake of your own salvation, I say, they shall live, and this is truth. Nation is its own evil. 2. Ethnologically different races had and were in close contact to each other. Ruling dynasties were not the major concern of our people; India had remained ‘aloof’ of all the fights with her simple administration and self-governed villages. And in the early days it had its separate place in society, restricted to the professionals. But must you say that it is not the soul, but the machine, which is of the utmost value to ourselves, and that man's salvation depends upon his disciplining himself into a perfection of the dead rhythm of wheels and counterwheels? Turn a tree into a log and it will burn for you, but it will never bear living flowers and fruit. You have lost your culture, you have become deracinated, you have lost yourself actually. The only reason for this is that power has become too abstract - it is a scientific product made in the political laboratory of the Nation, through the dissolution of the personal humanity. Yes, one cannot but acknowledge that these facts are the facts of the world of the Nation, and the only moral of it is that all the peoples of the earth should strain their physical, moral and intellectual resources to the utmost to defeat one another in the wrestling match of powerfulness. But when, instead of being numerous separate machines, they become riveted into one organized gregariousness of gluttony, commercial and political, what remotest chance of hope will remain for those others, who have lived and suffered, have loved and worshipped, have thought deeply and worked with meekness, but whose only crime has been that they have not organized? The hand-loom gives the benefit of having holes and relaxation in it while the power-loom is unfeeling and mechanical. The optimism of its logic goes on basing the calculations of its good fortune upon the indefinite prolongation of its railway lines toward eternity. In your medieval age in Europe, the simple and the natural man, with all his violent passions and desires, was engaged in trying to find out a reconciliation in the conflict between the flesh and the spirit. This could never have been possible if the god had been as real as the individual. The time has come when, for the sake of the whole outraged world, Europe should fully know in her own person the terrible absurdity of the thing called the Nation. They answer that nations are rampant due to which they have no choice but to not develop their higher humanity and partake in the ‘brotherhood of hooliganism’, as seen between Russia and Japan. ( Log Out /  Human society grew more and more into a marionette show of politicians, soldiers, manufacturers and bureaucrats, pulled by wire arrangements of wonderful efficiency. The nation has thrived for long upon mutilated humanity. Man, the person, must protest for his very life against the heaping up of things where there should be the heart, and systems and policies where there should flow living human relationship. You cannot secure it for your home consumption with protective tariff walls, while in foreign parts making it enormously accommodating in its free trade of license. Rabindranath Tagore begins by describing how the one problem India had to face since the beginning of history was the problem of race. We are realizing through it that there is a universal standard of justice to which all men irrespective of their caste and colour have their equal claim. But in India, our difficulties being internal, our history has been the history of continual social adjustment and not that of organized power for defence and aggression. The nation's bagpipe of righteous indignation has so often changed its tune according to the variation of time and to the altered groupings of the alliances of diplomacy, that it can be enjoyed with amusement as the variety performance of the political music hall. Only perhaps, in some cases, the organization might not have been so densely perfect, and, therefore, some shreds of the human might still have been clinging to the wreck, allowing us to deal with something which resembles our own throbbing heart. Tagore was aware of the dangers of a nationalism that was rooted in the Western concept of a nation state. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. It gives him freedom in the material world. They caused sufferings and unrest from which we are glad to be rescued. Tagore is well known for wanting Asian and even global oneness, and for disliking nationalism. And this Nation may grow on to an unimaginable corpulence, not of a living body, but of steel and steam and office buildings, till its deformity can contain no longer its ugly voluminousness, - till it begins to crack and gape, breathe gas and fire in gasps, and its death-rattles sound in cannon roars. The people accept this all-pervading mental slavery with cheerfulness and pride because of their nervous desire to turn themselves into a machine of power, called the Nation, and emulate other machines in their collective worldliness. The hope of the unexpected was never absent, and a freer play of imagination, both on the part of the governor and the governed, had its effect in the making of history. It is an end in itself. In quantity it is great, but it springs from the surface and spreads over the surface. They passed over her head like clouds, now tinged with purple gorgeousness, now black with the threat of thunder. Every sound of footstep, every rustle of movement in the neighbourhood, sends a thrill of terror all around. In the West the national machinery of commerce and politics turns out neatly compressed bales of humanity which have their use and high market value; but they are bound in iron hoops, labelled and separated off with scientific care and precision. Subsequently, he was shocked by the rising nationalism found in Germany and other nations prior to the World War II. If we must believe our schoolmaster in his taunt that after nearly two centuries of his tutelage, India not only remains unfit for self-government but unable to display originality in her intellectual attainments, must we ascribe it to something in the nature of Western culture and our inherent incapacity to receive it or to the judicious niggardliness of the Nation that has taken upon itself the white man's burden of civilizing the East? This progress of power attains more and more rapidity of pace. Japan protests that she has her bushido, that she can never be treacherous to America to whom she owes her gratitude. The time comes when it can stop no longer, for the competition grows keener, organization grows vaster, and selfishness attains supremacy. The very psychology of men and women about their mutual relation is changing and becoming the psychology of the primitive fighting elements rather than of humanity seeking its completeness through the union based upon mutual self-surrender. The soul is broken for one to participate in immoral acts in the name of nation. But can this go on indefinitely? In fact, these nations are fighting among themselves for the extension of their victims and their reserve forests. India is the result of the contribution of a number of races and we cannot stop the British from adding their portion as once we incorporate the principles of Western civilization, then we would be able to end this one-sided dominance. She is already carrying in her quivering flesh harpoons sent by the unerring aim of the Nation, the creature of science and selfishness. What is to happen to that larger part of the world, where fear will have no hand in restraining you? 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