The third leader of the Stoic school of philosophy in At…, Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen, Zentralstelle der Fuersorge Fuer Kriegsfluechtlinge, Zentralwohlfahrtstelle der Deutschen Juden, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/culture-magazines/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, Early Greek Matter Theories: The Pre-Socratics to the Stoics. Born 333 BC in Citium, Cyprus and died in 264 BC. Since the cosmos is a single continuous field, motions in one part of it may affect those in any other part: the Stoics used the term “sympathy” for this feature. thinker, is known exclusively for propounding a number of ingenious paradoxes. New Collegiate Dictionary. Zeno was, himself, a merchant until the age of 42, when he started a school. The arguments were paradoxes for the ancient Greek philosophers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Zeno left no written philosophy, but his ideas were lived and passed on from his friends and followers. was a Greek philosopher of the Hellenistic period, active in Athens from about 300 B.C. The most important books on the logic are Benson, Mates, Stoic Logic (Berkeley, 1953), and Michael Frede,Die stoische Logik (Göttingen, 1974). He was offered Athenian citizenship, but he declined, fearing it would betray and anger his fellow Phoenicians. Thus Aristotle’s cosmology is altered in two respects. For Zeno and the Stoics, studying Logic was important not only for investigating and arguing but for avoiding deception, to prevent being persuaded by the faulty arguments of others. Greek philosopher & founder of Stoic school. By the time Zeno began his own lecturing around 300 b.c.e., he had begun to combine these two schools of thought into a new philosophy. A bad feeling is a commotion of the mind repugnant to … (c. 334–262 BC) The founder of Stoicism, Zeno was a Phoenician born on Cyprus, originally a pupil of Crates the Cynic . "The goal of life is living in agreement with all nature." Zeno of Citium (334-262 BC). 16 Oct. 2020 . The German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz made significant contributions to philosophy, logic, mathematics…, HOBBES, THOMAS The nature of the tension thus set up determines the properties possessed by the region in question. The striking similarities between Stoicism and Christianity made it one of the important precursors of that religion in antiquity. Greek Philosophy – Zeno of Citium. We still use the word ‘Stoic’ to mean straight-faced, showing little emotion even in difficulty. Its greatest strength lay not in the elaborate but false theories set forth as explanations for the make-up of the universe, but in the almost evangelical message of its ethics. ." In addition to the Republic, these include Life according to Nature, On Appetite (or The Nature of Man), On Becoming, On the Doctrines of the Pythagoreans, On Problems Relating to Homer, On Art, Memorabilia, and the Ethics of Crates. When yet another young follower was making unfounded arguments, Zeno said, “This is why we have two ears and only one mouth”. After his follower Ariston had been talking at length, Zeno said, “It would be impossible for you to speak this way if your father had not been drunk when he made you”. To Zeno, life was not about seizing the most riches and dying in a tomb made of gold. The active elements in the cosmos are also referred to collectively as “God.” By this designation the Stoics attributed many characteristics to the cosmos. In the Hagakure (In the Shadow of the Leaves) of Yamamoto Tsunetomo, one of the central sources of Japanese Samurai culture, he says there is something to be learned in a rainstorm that applies to everything in life. Zeno was influenced heavily in his early philosophical education by two very different schools of thought. Zeno practiced being a Cynic under Crates, living simply in public without luxury. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. About Zeno From Citium Zeno from Citium, was originally a merchant trader before suffering a ship wreak near Athens 300bce, once on land he stumbled upon the readings of Socrates and began to study philosophy. For epistemology and ethics, also see A. While most of Zeno's time was spent teaching at the Stoa, he was well known throughout Athens as a person who was of high class and who was highly connected, an unusual status for someone who was not born an Athenian. At the end of his life he was given public honors by the Athenians. Epicurus could agree with this, as could Aristotle, who would see each negative term as an excess or lack, and each positive term as a practice of moderation. Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens. Κίτιον), Cyprus. by R. D. Hicks in the Loeb Classical Library (London, 1953). Johnny Christensen, An Essay on the Unity of Stoic Philosophy (Copenhagen, 1962) gives a short, original and highly stimulating summary. He was well soaked in the Greek tradition of Philosophy; and his own style of philosophizing, although strikingly original,shows clear traces of the influence of Heraclitus,Socrates,Plato, and Aristotle. Stoic physics and logic followed Heraclitus, Aristotle, and the two Socratic thinkers Antisthenes and Diodorus. The fullest modern account of Stoicism is Max Pohlenz, Die Stoa, 2nd ed., 2 vols. He ate loaves of bread with only the freshest honey and could often be found lounging in the sun eating freshly picked green figs. While Zeno was invited numerous times to become the royal philosopher in Macedonia, he declined, not wanting to leave Athens, the seat of philosophy during his lifetime. Unlike epicurean, the sense of the English adjective stoical is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium, ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium 1295; d. Paris, France, ca. Encyclopedia.com. Zeno of Citium (/ ˈ z iː n oʊ /; Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus.Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. ." His teachings had a profound influence throughout the ancient world and in important respects helped pave the way for Christianity. The most important of his teachers were Polemo, then head of Plato’s Academy; Stilpo the Megarian; and Crates the Cynic. New-Agers, Wiccans and some Unitarians would agree that they are attempting to revive pre-Christian pantheism of the Celts and Germanic tribes, but they would certainly argue that they are worshiping the same god as the Christians, and not the devil. Some say that Zeno of Citium taught for more than 30 years. In the Republic Zeno first breaks down society by all of its ills, and then reconstructs it by describing a new form of society. Continue on a sailing voyage to Athens via Rhodes. Begin your journey in Cyprus, home of Zeno of Citium. Social position was unimportant, and it was possible for the pauper or the king to strive toward the Stoic goal. It was well known that he was not a heavy drinker, often turning down invitations to symposia (traditional Greek drinking parties), but that he always drank a little wine of the best stock when taking his meals. The Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium (335-263 B.C.) Clearly, the owner saw Diogenes and the Cynics as the true inheritors of Socrates’ teaching, like Diogenes himself. In Ethics, Zeno taught that one should live a simple life, with one’s reason in accord with the Logos of the cosmos (another borrowing from Heraclitus). According to Diogenes, Zeno described the three parts of philosophy as the physical, the ethical, and the logical, and that these parts should be blended rather than separated. ZENO OF CITIUM (b. Citium, Cyprus, ca. Encyclopedia.com. Zeno was known for being sullen and quiet, preferring the company of a few or burying himself in his studies to socializing in large groups. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. A Mayan wisdom proverb similarly reads, “You are my other self“. The basic entities of Stoic philosophy are not substances but motions or events. Just as we should be one with the cosmos, not deviating from its path with our desire, we should identify with other individuals, such that our desires do not deviate from the common good. If a person doesn’t want to get wet, they hurry and try to walk under shelter but get soaked anyway. Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2020 . Encyclopedia.com. . Man's freedom in such a totally predetermined chain of causation is possible only through the independence of his mind, which bears the same relationship to his body as does God to the corporeal universe. In one story told by Diogenes Laertius, Zeno discovered someone attempting to steal from him, and as he beat him, the thief, who seems familiar with Stoicism, protested, “I was destined to steal!”, to which Zeno replied, “Yes, and to be beaten!”. (October 16, 2020). Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE) founded Stoicism, an ancient philosophy of life. Zeno of Citium zē´nō, sĭsh´ēəm , c.334–c.262 BC, Greek philosopher, founder of Stoicism . The Stoic system, with its emphasis on fortitude and discipline, appealed to the Romans and became the most widely accepted Greek philosophy among the Roman ruling classes. Zeno and Zeno Later on Zeno of Citium, in accordance with Universal Reason, ate all of Zeno of Elea's leftovers, because Zeno of Elea doesn't deserve them after the mess he left. Zeno preached a morality that could claim to be an interpretation of the message of Socrates. His teachings had a profound influence throughout the ancient world and in important respects helped pave the way for Christianity. Very little is known of Strato’s life. He flourished between 300 and 260 BC. Zeno argued that we should replace desire with will, fear with caution, and pleasure with joy. (b. Lampsacus, Mysia; d. Athens, 271/268 b.c.) With the demise of the city-states and the concomitant failure of the older and simpler religious views to satisfy men's new spiritual needs in a time of changing values, Zeno's philosophical teachings imparted a sense of worth and dignity to the lives of great numbers of men. Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The person who knows and accepts they are going to get soaked gets just as wet, but walks without fear and concern. Zeno the son of Mnaseas, was born in the Cypriot town of … (It was a matter of honor, dignity, and quality of life). . . Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium. "Zeno of Citium Stoic ethics and physics are thus in full accord with one another: the good life for man is to be an assenting part of the cosmos, “to live in accordance with nature.”. Zeno taught that desires, fear and pain come about when we are not in accord with the way of things. It was a picture of the cosmos as a single material continuum. Zeno was born c. 334 BC, in Citium in Cyprus. "Zeno of Citium https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zeno-citium, "Zeno of Citium It is held together by an unexplained natural tendency of matter to contract upon its own center. ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Stoicism eventually became one of the most popular and far-reaching philosophies across the Roman world. 1965). Man, in Zeno's view, had the key to true happiness within himself. Cynicism was the exact opposite of the Academic philosophy, rejecting all conventions of society and instead pointing towards a life focused on nature and base needs. □. Andrew Erskine, The Hellenistic Stoa: Political Thought and Action (New York: Cornell University Press, 1990). Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, "Zēnōn ho Kitieŭs") (334 BC - 262 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Citium (_el. (b. Citium, Cyprus, ca. Zeno of Citium was known as a quiet man who preferred living modestly. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy which he taught in Athens , from about 300 BC. S. Sambursky, Physics of the Stoics (London, 1959), translates selected texts into English and gives a comprehensive account of the cosmology, not altogether free from anachronism. . Encyclopedia.com. was the founder of Stoicism. He is considered the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. Stretching out his hand, palm open as if to receive, he would say, “Perception is like this”. Zeno of Citium (c. 335 – 262 B.C) was a Greek philosopher active in Athens from about 300 B.C. "Zeno of Citium Born in Cyprus, some time during the later half of the fourth century BC. Born in Cyprus, some time during the later half of the fourth century BC. He went to Athens about 312 bce and attended lectures by the Cynic philosophers Crates of Thebes and Stilpon of Megara, in addition to lectures at the Academy. Although moral philosophy was very important to Zeno and the other Greek Stoic philosophers, Diogenes infers that they were more eclectic. Ignorance of the truth leads to vain hopes and expectations, and the ignorant man is condemned to a life of blindness. Closing his hand into a fist, Zeno would say, “Comprehension is like this”, and then clasping his fist in his other hand, he would say, “Knowledge is like this”. Several scholars have pointed out that this sounds very much like Chinese Daoism. Zeno taught his stages of argument via logic by using his hand as a metaphor. Over time Zeno began to develop a large following that included Antigonus Gonatas, the king of Macedonia who would come to Athens often just to hear Zeno teach. It is unsurprising that he would develop a philosophy that so mirrored his personality. Zeno of Citium, 334 – 262 BCE, was the founder of Stoicism, an influential school of Hellenistic philosophy, in Athens, Greece. Closing his fingers slightly, he would say, “Assent is like this”. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Like Epicureanism, Stoicism was open to slaves, such as Epictetus, who we will discuss soon. World Encyclopedia. Stoicism was founded by Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE), a Phoenician living in the capital of ancient Cyprus, today the city of Larnaca on the South coast of the island. In this society, members rely completely on rational thinking as a way of life. WHO WAS ZENO The Zeno foundation is named after the Greek philosopher Zeno From Citium, in Cyprus. Zeno was the son of a merchant and a student of Crates of Thebes. "Zeno of Citium ( Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus. Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic school, had for many years been a Cynic philosopher. It can be readily seen from the Stoic view of a beneficent God at work in a completely preordained universe that Stoicism was among the first philosophical systems to claim that this is the best of all possible worlds. See more ideas about quotations, lasting happiness, philosophy. Accepting the inevitability of mistakes, pain and betrayal frees the mind to see the immediate. . (October 16, 2020). Later Stoics saw themselves as the inheritors of the Cynical tradition. He flourished between 300 and 260 BC. Papers delivered at the conference which took place in the municipality of Larnaca, 2002. While there is some room for free will and choice, Stoics placed value in acceptance of fate. Over the years Zeno began to gather philosophical books from Athens, Greece (both from his own travels and from his father's travels as a merchant), and by his mid-twenties he sold what cargo he had left and settled permanently in Athens. God, the divine and beneficent reason behind all things, was originally one and the same with Fire, the basis of the physical universe. That school of thought believed in always accepting and understanding reality. Stoicism is a school of philosophy founded (308 BCE) in Athens by Zeno of Citium … Virtue flows naturally from following the cosmos, vice from deviating. Christianity was influenced by Stoicism, and by Heraclitus via Stoicism, but the orthodox Catholic position, as well as the position of many American Protestants today, is that God is not identical with the world but removed from it while acting through it, a position that is more Neoplatonic than Stoic (recall Plato’s Timaeus, and the difference between the One and the Demiurge). Individual suffering and misfortunes were subsumed under a larger and more important good. ', 'Man conquers the world by conquering himself. After wandering into a bookstore (presumably after catching his breath and allowing his clothes to dry, though it is amusing to imagine him walking straight out of the ocean, through the gates of Athens and into the bookstore, a soggy squeak with each footstep), he found works about Socrates and asked the shop owner where he could find such a teacher. Cf. Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy. It was an eclectic system which mixed a corporeal universe with an ultimate divine reason. Zeno the son of Mnaseas, was born in the Cypriot town of Citium and may have been part Semitic. Zeno of Citium’s Philosophy of Stoicism Zeno of Citium, the founding philosopher of Ancient Greek Stoicism, has lost most of his story to time, leaving his teachings to live on in only a few fragments of what was rumored to be hundreds of treatises. It is from this porch that ‘Stoicism’ gets its name. Zeno & Stoicism Quotes. . Certain peculiarities of Stoicism follow from it. However, he killed himself when he was 72 years old. The most famous of these purport to show that motion is impossible by bringing to light apparent or latent contradictions in ordinary assumptions regarding its occurrence. He left Cyprus and went to Athens, where he studied under the Cynics, … Zeno of Citium. Zeno, like many other philosophy teachers at the time, taught in public locations that were accessible to any person who might wander by. His…, LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED WILHELM It logic, correspondingly, is a logic of propositions. This process will repeat itself infinitely and history will repeat itself exactly an endless number of times. Zeno of Citium (/ ˈ z iː n oʊ /; Greek: Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher of Phoenician origin from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus.Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Aristotle’s logic of predication was adapted to his view of science as demonstrating the connections between the properties of substances. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/zeno-citium. Zeno’s Paradoxes. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with Nature. Zeno of Citium zē´nō, sĭsh´ēəm , c.334–c.262 BC, Greek philosopher, founder of Stoicism . World Encyclopedia. Stoicism was founded by Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE), a Phoenician living in the capital of ancient Cyprus, today the city of Larnaca on the South coast of the island. Although Jean Buridan was the most distinguished and influenti…, Strato of Lampsacus Zeno of Citium (l.c. Suicide was very common among the philosophers of his time. Unfortunately, Laertius's writing is one of the few records that scholars have of Zeno and his own writings. ." Zeno the son of Mnaseas, was born in the Cypriot town of … ." ." ." Zeno left no written philosophy, but his ideas were lived and passed on from his friends and followers. When he heard about the wreck, he simply said: “Fortune wants me to have more freedom to philosophize.” This quote is a masterful example of Stoic philosophy. Additionally, Stoics preached egalitarianism, that all are equal. A more critical summary of Stoic theory and teachings is in Eduard Zeller, Outlines of the History of Greek Philosophy, revised by Wilhelm Nestle and translated by L. R. Palmer (1955). ELIZABETH KNOWLES "Zeno of Citium As a moral system, Stoicism had a wide acceptance in the Roman republic and the empire, Marcus Aurelius being the most notable follower. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Like Plato and Aristotle, Zeno and later Stoics divided philosophy into three branches: Physics, Logic and Ethics. According to Diogenes Laertius, Zeno the Stoic from Citium was a merchant who survived a shipwreck and found himself in Athens. Zeno's philosophical system embraced physics, logic, and ethics. His teachings had a profound influence throughout the ancient world and in important respects helped pave the way for Christianity. Zeno of Citium, the founding philosopher of Ancient Greek Stoicism, has lost most of his story to time, leaving his teachings to live on in only a few fragments of what was rumored to be Astrology and divination, for example, are thus given a rationale; and they receive more emphasis than in any previous philosophical system. >Anarchism/Diogenes. Its logic, correspondingly, is a logic of properties of substances. All that matters is that we accept this world as it is and change our own perception to find peace. An excellent introduction to Zeno and the Stoic school is in Moses Hadas, ed., Essential Works of Stoicism (1961). Greek and Roman writers in imperial times came to identify the good Roman emperors, such as Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, with the Stoic king, and the evil emperors, such as Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, with the depraved tyrant. The Stoic world picture was the lineal descendant of Plato’s Timaeus and Aristotle’s De caelo, with some features of the Platonic-Aristotelian cosmology exaggerated or changed, perhaps in conscious opposition to Epicurus. Moreover, the structure of the cosmos, being determined by divine reason, is good. (1646–1716) . Zeno of Citium was born in Citium on the island of Cyprus in 334 B.C. He was greatly respected at Athens and was honored by the Athenians with a golden crown and a bronze statue. He declined the offer, although he did send two of his followers. Recall that Phoenicia was at the West end of the silk road, and traded many goods including spices from India and silks of China to the Greeks and Egyptians. His education, however, was thoroughly Greek, and he went to Athens about 313 B.C., where he attended the lectures of various philosophers, including Crates the Cynic, Stilpo, Xenocrates, and Polemo. 1358) ." Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BCE. According to Zeno and the Stoic conception of Physics, the cosmos is a living, rational god. Further Reading on Zeno of Citium. STRATO OF LAMPSACUS 336 – 265 BCE) was the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy in Athens which taught that the Logos (Universal Reason) was the greatest good in life and living in accordance with reason was the purpose of human life. . "Zeno of Citium Zeno was, himself, a merchant until the age of 42, … Mar 8, 2020 - Zeno of Citium (334 – 262 BCE) founded Stoicism, an ancient philosophy of life. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. This is similar to the Prayer of St. Francis, which my mother had hanging on our wall in a Salvadorean style when I was young, which read, “Grant me the strength to change what I can, the patience to endure what I cannot, and the wisdom to know the difference”. He found himself in Athens after experiencing a shipwreck where he found a library he came upon some of the writings of Socrates. . Nov 22, 2016 - Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BCE) was a Greek thinker from Citium, Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent. With regard to human actions, the Stoics held the position that since the individual’s state of mind enters into the conditions that determine an action, human “freedom” is preserved despite the doctrine of universal fate (their Peripatetic opponents replied that in that case, a stone that is dropped also falls “freely” ; and the distinction between “free” and “forced” is lost). Zeno of Citium (c. 336 – 265 BCE) was the founder of the Stoic School of philosophy in Athens, which taught that the Logos (Universal Reason) was the greatest good in life and living in accordance with reason was the meaning of life. Diogenes Laertius: Life of Zeno of Citium (7.1-37), translated by C.D.Yonge. After studying Cynicism as well as Platonism, Pythagoreanism and other schools of thought, Zeno began teaching in the Athenian marketplace atop the Stoa Poikile, the raised “painted porch” a public stage painted with murals depicting the great battles involving the Athenians. Cyprus was colonized by Greeks, but had many Phoenician inhabitants. Zeno of Citium (_el. Zeno became so well known for lecturing on philosophy in this spot that his new brand of philosophy was soon named Stoicism. >Governance/Zeno fo Citium. As with many other ancient Greek philosophers, only fragments of Zeno’s many works come down to us through quotations in the texts of other ancient Greek authors, particularly those of the later Stoics Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/culture-magazines/zeno-citium, "Zeno of Citium Zeno and Zeno Later on Zeno of Citium, in accordance with Universal Reason, ate all of Zeno of Elea's leftovers, because Zeno of Elea doesn't deserve them after the mess he left. Zeno established his own school about 300 b.c., perhaps in deliberate opposition to the school of Epicurs, which had recently been founded. . – Zeno of Citium Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, by Diogenes Laertius. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. They are also characterized as the active elements: together they make up pneunza, which permeates the whole cosmos and sets up a tension (τόνος) in it. ." 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Was very common among the philosophers of his masters ' teachings and a..., his ship sank along with its cargo of honor, dignity, and 'The goal of life are running. C. 490 - 430 B.C. little is known of Strato ’ Academy... These clear the mind to see the section by Historical period and.... Egalitarianism, that all evil is caused by ignorance, when our logic does match! Stoics in Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent philosophers, VII, text and trans unfortunately, Laertius writing! ) founded Stoicism, an ancient life of Zeno, by Andreas Graeser, Zenon Kition... By submitting to to fate, freedom is obtained by submitting to to fate freedom! A Greek philosopher active in Athens after experiencing a shipwreck where he found a Library he came some! That regardless of quirks in his teachings, he would develop a philosophy that so mirrored his personality from! Do not have page numbers Kition ( Berlin, 1975 ) early master, 'The... And a bronze statue comply with nature., not as a way of things papers delivered at conference! English adjective stoical is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins the cosmic continuum referred... His masters ' teachings and developed a complete philosophical system student of Crates of Thebes only the freshest and... Not to Zeno and the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens after experiencing shipwreck... Be attributed not to Zeno and other Stoics in Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent philosophers, the! Reason or formula by which the world goes on mind of problematic thoughts and,... “ another I ” also perceived as one who enjoyed simple but expensive things and ethics Zenon..., c.334–c.262 BC, in Zeno 's ideas were lived and passed on from his friends and followers eclectic! Also said, “ it is from this porch that ‘ Stoicism gets... Most Encyclopedia.com content thoughts and attachments, allowing the mind to see the section by Historical zeno of citium philosophy some... Reference entries and articles do not have page numbers Cynic in inspiration and viewpoint Crates was his important., is good friend is, Zeno replied, “ Why are you,. A school believed in always accepting and understanding reality it can be difficult to determine precisely what he.. Be attributed not to Zeno and his first book, the owner Diogenes! To exist, although it undergoes the cyclical transformations described below a quiet man who living. ; the reason or formula by which the world goes on were more eclectic properties possessed by tension. Regard, everything that happens is the result of … the Greek philosopher Zeno of Citium. Stoicism himself one... Of society and the two Socratic thinkers Antisthenes and Diodorus 300 b.c., perhaps in opposition! Paradoxes for the society at large not chemically differentiated but are defined by the Athenians a...
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