For FRA 2005, employment was defined as: “Any type of work performed or services rendered under a contract of hire, written or oral, in exchange for wage or salary, in cash or in kind”, based on definitions by the International Labour Organization and the Employment Security Commission. Results of selected empirical studies of the social benefits of urban forests are interpreted. 5. from 7 percent to 23 percent of forest area) as a consequence of the privatization and restitution of forest land. The area of forests designated for social services indicates to what extent countries and forest managers are actively considering these services as part of the benefits of forests. This shows the proportion of total global and regional production covered by the countries providing value statistics for 2005 (FAO, 2005a). When people are stressed, they usually take a walk in the parks and other nature trails for the calming effect. The decline is mostly the result of reclassification of forests in the Russian Federation. Similarly, despite the relatively low number of responses from Oceania and North and Central America, most of the countries with significant forest areas in these two regions provided some information (e.g. Agro-forestry involves the growth of trees and agriculture in the same setting to provide landowners with agricultural and tree products on a commercial basis. Of these, only 66 countries and territories (representing about 53 percent of the world’s forest area) reported actually having forest areas designated for social services, and only 60 countries have presented complete trend data. This type of social forestry is ideal for an individual looking to venture into farm forestry while maintaining the existing agricultural enterprise. by University of Michigan. Forests contribute to the livelihoods of some 1.6 billion people worldwide, including 60 million indigenous people who are fully dependent upon them. One country – India – accounts for a significant proportion of this discrepancy (the figure quoted in Lebedys is based on the results of an earlier FAO survey of forestry employment in which India reported a 1994 level of employment of only 263 000). 1 However, some countries reported the value of removals for only a portion of their total production. At the global level, 109 countries, or some 42–47 percent of countries, depending on the year, reported on the value of industrial roundwood removals, with most reporting for the year 2000. 9. For the same reason, reliable trends for the other regions cannot be derived from the small number of reported values. Although that figure includes estimates for a number of countries, it is notable that the statistics reported above amount to more than twice this figure. 8.1 What is the total value of harvested wood? This has been caused by a shift in the structure of production in Brazil over the last 15 years – from the production of industrial roundwood from natural forests (bringing a high price) to that from forest plantations (bringing a much lower price, but eventually greater production). Although the concept and practice of social forestry have existed for centuries, it is constantly gaining a new dimension because of its benefits including its potential for tackling the challenges of global warming. 8.5 How much of the forest area has been set aside for recreation and other social functions? Loud noises can disrupt sleep, affect how people relate with others, and even cause illness. Those reporting for all three years account for about 67 percent of global forest area (Figure 7.5). Trees help to reduce carbon dioxide by acting as a carbon dioxide sink and by reducing energy use. At the country level, the only significant trends are the increased private forest area in the Philippines, mainly reflecting the expansion of forest plantations and despite the decrease in total forest area, and in Viet Nam, where private forests have increased by more than 2 million hectares as a result of the process of allocation of public forests to individual households (from 0.1 percent in 1990 to 18 percent in 2000 and 20 percent in 2005). Fifty-six countries provided information, accounting for slightly more than half the global forest area (Figures 7.3 and 7.4). mainly developed countries. Public ownership is by far the predominant category in all regions and subregions (Figure 7.7). Authors share cases and experiences highlighting efforts of forest and natural resource managers to develop Europe shows a decline under primary function, but a small increase under total area with function. Source & ©: FAO  Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, Progress towards sustainable forest management, Chapter 7: Socio-economic functions, p.107-108. The color green creates a calming effect and helps relieve eye strain contributing to the wellness of the community. Although rules and regulations are being put in place to reduce noise pollution in many nations across the globe, embracing social forestry in urban areas can mitigate the effects of noise pollution. Studies have shown that providing 20 percent shade can help improve the condition of your pavement by up to 11 percent resulting in up to 60 percent savings in resurfacing costs. (And How to Keep Them Away), Do Deer Eat Peonies? incompatible definitions and measurement units, partial responses from some countries, and statistics that contradict other sources or seem otherwise implausible). However, it should be noted that some significant countries reported the value of only a part of their total production (e.g. Forests act as a source of food, medicine and fuel for more than a billion people. social cohesion, and, in some cases, contribute to a reduction in crime. after adjusting for inflation). However, excluding the Russian Federation, they reach 51 percent. Forests make the micromate of an area more equable and moderate. 2 Much of the bushmeat produced in other regions is unregulated and/or illegal, so there are no official statistics and the product is not reported by countries. Studies have shown that hospital patients with a view of trees outside their windows can help them recover faster and with fewer complications. (And 5 Ways to Dispose of), Is Junk Mail Recyclable? Trees also absorb tailpipe pollutants that can have a negative effect on people’s health such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Under total area with function (Table 7.11), Europe reports about 72 percent of its forest area. After adjusting, the reported value of wood removals has certainly fallen at the global level during this period. In the other three regions (Africa, North and Central America and Oceania), the reported value of wood removals has roughly doubled. Founded Conserve Energy Future with the sole motto of providing helpful information related to our rapidly depleting environment. In many other cases, the figures reported here and in that report are quite similar or can be explained by differences in definitions. For example, the United States included employment in sawmilling in their employment figures for FRA 2005 (resulting in a much higher number than for employment in roundwood production alone). In particular, the reported trend in Asia shows a significant decline, reflecting the declines reported in some major countries (e.g. In terms of forest area, the regions or subregions accounting for the greatest area of private forests are North America ( about 200 million hectares) and Europe (100 million hectares), followed by Oceania (49 million hectares). Two billion people also rely on traditional medicines from forests for their health. Social forestry is the management and protection of forests and afforestation of barren and deforested lands with the purpose of helping environmental, social and rural development. Australia, Canada [1990 and 2000 only], Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the United States). At the regional level, Asia and Europe accounted for almost 90 percent of the total reported value of removals, with values of US$1.7 billion and US$1.8 billion respectively. The International Standard Industrial Classification, generally used by national statistical agencies, is being revised for greater clarity and level of detail for many economic activities (including forestry). A wide variety of variables may be measured: production and consumption; recreation and tourism; funding and investment in the forest sector; cultural, social and spiritual needs and values; forestry employment; health and safety; and community needs. These changes, in addition to affecting the way in which forests are managed, have social, political and economic implications. First, in many cases, countries reported the value of only part of total removals (e.g. Understanding the impact of tenure issues on sustainable forest management and recent trends is essential to the formulation of effective policies by governments. Benefits also include the hosting and protection of sites and landscapes of high cultural, spiritual, or recreational value. Spending time in forests is good for our mental, physical and social wellbeing. Similarly, 37–41 percent of countries reported on the value of fuelwood removals, also with most reporting for 2000. It includes aspects such as forest management, forest protection, and afforestation of deforested lands with the objective of improving the rural, environmental, and social development. It is important to gather and analyse this information, as it is a significant indicator of the impact of forests on people and demonstrates the contribution of the sector to broader economic aims and objectives. At the global level, 138 countries reported on employment. Forests protect us and our infrastructures. Furthermore, mature trees create an environment that encourages the growth of other plants that would otherwise not be existent thereby increasing food varieties for animals and the local people. The basic facts are well presented and compelling; other more recent research may be … Three specific products and countries accounted for the relatively high value of other plant product removals: bidi leaves in India, cork in Spain and manure in the Republic of Korea. 5 benefits of forests . Source & ©: FAO  Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, Progress towards sustainable forest management, Chapter 7: Socio-economic functions, p.116-119, OWNERSHIP OF FORESTS AND OTHER WOODED LANDS. This has triggered a debate not only on the effectiveness of public-sector forest management, but also on the relevance of overall state ownership. Particularly, trees help to clean air by absorbing gaseous pollutants into their leaves and then trap and filter particulates on and through their stems, leaves, and twigs. In Europe, the reported value of bushmeat removals was US$0.6 billion, followed by food (US$0.4 billion) and ornamental plants (US$0.3 billion). For example, in developed, post-industrial societies, the benefits of forests for recreation and amenity values or the maintenance of a rural way of life may be most important, while in developing countries, the area of forests available for subsistence activities or the number of people employed in the sector may be a better indication of their social value. Areas with urban forests have lower levels of social disorder like graffiti, fewer property crimes, fewer violent crimes, and more social interaction among adults and children. 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